Comparison of Adjectives – Comparative

1. Comparative adjectives compare two things or person (nouns).
          My grandfather’s hair is greyer than my grandmother’s hair.
          My house is smaller than Mary’s house.
          This road is more crooked than that one.

2. ‘-er’ is added to adjectives of one syllable, followed by ‘than’.
          Summer is warmer than winter.
          This rose is redder than a cherry.
          This house is bigger than that house.

3. ‘-ier’ is added to adjectives of two syllables, followed by ‘than’ if the adjective ends in ‘-y’.
          I arrived earlier than Benny.
          I am busier today than I was yesterday.
          Ratty is lazier than Catty.

4. ‘-r’ is added to adjectives that end with ‘-e’ followed by ‘than’.
          This house is nicer than the one we stayed in last year.
          Houses in a gated community are safer than those houses that are not gated.

5. The comparative for irregular adjectives are formed by a complete changed of the word.
          good – better                           many – more
          little – less                                bad – worse

Comparison of Adjectives – Superlative

1. When we compare three or more things (nouns), we use the superlative form of an adjective. The  superlative form ends with ‘-iest’ or ‘-est’.

2. The determiner ‘the’ is used before an adjective in the superlative form.
          This is the dirtiest room I have ever seen!
          Among my three sisters, I have the longest hair.
          John is the cleverest boy in my class.
          This is the longest river in the world.
          He is the funniest clown in the circus.

More examples:
Adjective (Positive form)
Superlativ form

3. Adjectives of more than two syllables form the superlative by adding ‘most’ before the positive adjectives.
      the  most expensive                          the most handsome
      the  most beautiful                            the  most difficult
      the  most alarming                            the  most brilliant


The Apostrophe

We use possessive nouns to show ownership.

i. By adding an apostrophe s (‘s) to proper nouns.
Mohan’s friend
- A friend of Mohan
Soo Ling’s house
- The house belonging to Soo Ling
Ali’s car
- The car belonging to Ali

ii. By adding an apostrophe s (‘s) to singular common nouns.
My brother’s pen
- The pen belonging to my brother
The elephant’s ears
- The ears of the elephant
The doctor’s clinic
- The clinic owned by the doctor

iii. By adding an apostrophe s (‘s) to plural common nouns that do not end in the letter s.
The women’s rings
- the rings belonging to the women
The deer’s antlers
- The antlers of the deer
The children’s toys
- The toys belonging to the children

iv. By adding an apostrophe s (‘s) at the end of a plural noun that ends in the letter s.
The boys’ shoes
- The shoes belonging to the boys
The puppies’ tails
- The tails of the puppies
The teachers’ books
- The books belonging to the teachers

v. For non-living things, we use the word ‘of instead of an apostrophe s (‘s).
The tyres of the car
The handle of the knife
The walls of the house


Prepositions – Position Direction

- A preposition is used before a noun or pronoun to show its relation to
  another word or phrase in the same sentence.

- The following are prepositions of place or position.

She is working at a fast-food outlet.
The little baby is hiding behind the door.
The bookshop is beside the canteen.
Peter is sitting between Jenny and Kassim.
We are having a picnic by the lake.
The bird is in the cage.
in front of
Miss Lim stood in front of the class.
Klang is near Shah Alam.
The man is carrying a plank on his shoulder.
The villagers built a bridge over the river.
The children are resting under the tree.

- The following are prepositions of direction.

We walk slowly along the path.
The coin rolls down the drain.
The walkers came from the village.
He threw the ball through the hoop.

Common errors
Mr. Lee lives at Kepong.
Mr. Lee lives in Kepong.

Rule 1:       at, in, on
Prepositions at, in, on are used to indicate where we live.
          I live at 3, Jalan PU8/8, Taman Putra.
          I live in Taman Putra.
          She lives on the fourth floor of Vista Towers.
We use at to state an address.
We use in to state the town, city or country where one lives.
We use on to state the floor or level of the building one lives in.

Father is in the showroom.
Father is at the showroom.

Rule 2:       at, in
We use at to show an exact location or a particular point.
We use in to show that a person or thing is inside something or in an enclosed area.
          My sister is at the florist’s. (not the grocer’s)
          My sister is in the shop. (not outside it)

We have a picnic in the beach.
We have a picnic on the beach.

Rule 3:       in, on
We use in to show a person or thing below the surface.
We use on to show a person or thing just touching a line or the surface.
          He buried the box in the ground.
          The boat drifted on the river.

The school is besides the church.
The school is beside the church.

Rule 4:
beside means ‘next to’.
besides means ‘in addition to’.


Conjunctions are words that join words, phrases and sentences.

1. We use and to join two sentences of related or similar ideas.
Examples:   I can speak English. I can speak Mandarin.
                   I can speak English and Mandarin.

2. We use or to show a choice or an alternative.
Examples:   Do you like coffee? Do you like tea?
                   Do you like coffee or tea?

3. We use but to join two sentences to show contrast.
Examples:   My grandfather is old. My grandfather is strong.
                   My grandfather is old but strong.

4. We use because to show cause or reason.
Examples:   She is crying. She has a toothache.
                   She is crying because she has a toothache.

5. We use so to show the result of an action.
Examples:   We won the race. We had a celebration.
                   We won the race so we had a celebration.

- When two simple sentences are joined together using a conjunction, a compound sentence is formed.
Examples:   I like singing. (simple sentence)
                   I hate dancing. (simple sentence)
                   I like singing but hate dancing. (compound sentence)

                   I like singing. (simple sentence)
                   She likes singing. (simple sentence)
                   I like singing and she likes singing too. (compound sentence)

- A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses but no subordinate clause.
Examples:   He threw a stick but it missed the cat.
                   (idea 1)                    (idea 2)

                   The rain fell heavily and we got wet.
                   (idea 1)                           (idea 2)

                   I was born in Malaysia so I am a Malaysian.
                   (idea 1)                           (idea 2)

                   You must hurry or you will be late.
                   (idea 1)                 (idea 2)

                   She was absent because she was sick.
                   (idea 1)                           (idea 2)

Common errors:


My father is an architect but my mother is a teacher.
My father is an architect and my mother is a teacher.
*(similar idea: occupation)

The house is small and the garden is big.
The house is small but the garden is big.
*(contrast in meaning: small, big)

She was absent because of she was ill.
She was absent because she was ill.
*(Do not use ‘of’ after ‘because’ when joining sentences.

We cannot come so we are busy.
We are busy so we cannot come.
We cannot come because we are busy.
*(reason for being unable to come)


"Wh-" Question Words
 "Wh-" question words are used to ask questions. 

"Who" is used for people.
e.g. Who are these children?
        Who is that man?

"What" is used for things, animals and people.
e.g. What colour is your new bicycle?
        What animal is that?
"Which" is used for both people and things. It implies selection.
e.g. Which is Susan's house?
        Which boy broke the window?

"Where" is used for places.
e.g. Where did she put my books?
        Where is your house?

"When" is used for the time, day, month or year.
e.g. When is your brother coming home?
        When is your birthday?

"Why" is used for the time, day, month or year.
e.g. Why were you absent yesterday?
        Why did you leave your books there?

"How" is used to ask about the way something is done or the condition of someone.e.g.
e.g. How do you make chocolate cookies?
        How are you, Eng Eng?


Collective Noun
 A collective noun is used to name a group of people or animals or a collection of things.

 Study the examples listed. Using them in your compositions will make your writing more exciting to read!
1.  an army of soldiers
2.  a class of pupils
3.  a band of musicians
一组乐队 / 劫匪
4.  a choir of singers
5.  a company of actors
6.  a crew of sailors
7.  a crowd of people
8.  a gaggle of noisy pupils
9.  a gang of thieves / robbers
一帮贼 / 劫匪
10. a party of friends
11. a staff of teachers
12. a team of players
13. a troop of scouts / soldiers
一队童子军 / 军队
14. a troupe of dancers / artist
一团舞蹈员/ 艺人

1.  an army of ants
2.  a brood of chicks / eaglets / duckling
一窝小鸡 / 小鹰 / 小鸭
3.  a flock of birds / sheep
一群鸟 / 绵羊
4.  a gaggle of geese
5.  a herd of cattle / elephants / goats / buffaloes
一群牛/ 大象/ / 水牛
6.  a litter of kittens / puppies
一窝小猫 / 小狗
7.  a nest of rabbits / mice / ants
一窝兔子/ 老鼠/ 蚂蚁
8.  a pack of wolves / bears
9.  a pride of lions / peacocks
一群狮子 / 孔雀
10. a school of dolphins / whales / fish
一群海豚 / 鲸鱼
11. a shoal of fish
12. a swarm of bees / flies / insects
一群蜜蜂 / 苍蝇 / 昆虫
13. a team of horses / oxen
14.  a troop of monkeys

1.  a basket of fruits
2.  a brunch of bananas / grapes / keys
一串香蕉/ 葡萄/ 钥匙
3.  a bundle of sticks
4.  a chest of drawers
5.  a clump / forest of tress
6.  a cluster of stars / diamonds
一堆星星 / 钻石
7.  a collection of stamps / books / coins / stickers
一批邮票/ 藏书 / 硬币/ 黏纸
8.  a crew of sailor
9.  a fleet of cars / ships
一队汽车 / 船只
10. a flight of stairs / aeroplane
一段楼梯 / 队飞机
11. a group of island
12. a heap of rubbish / sand / stones
一堆垃圾 / / 石头
13. a pack of cards
14.  a packet of cigarettes / sweets
一盒香烟 / 糖果
15. a pile of stones
一堆垃圾 / / 石头
16. a row of houses
17. a set of tools
18. a suit of clothes
19. a string if pearls / beads
一串珍珠 / 小珠子
20. a tray of eggs


A simile is a comparison that uses the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. When we make comparisons of situations, we show how these situations or examples are similar.
Examples of similes
1.  as clumsy as a bear
- 像熊一样粗笨
2.  as blind as a bat
- 像蝙蝠一样盲
3. as cool as a cucumber
- 像黄瓜一样冷
4.  as proud as a peacock
- 像孔雀一样骄傲
5. as hairy as a gorilla
- 像大猩猩一样多毛
6.  as heavy as an elephant
- 像大象一样重
7.  as lazy as a toad
- 像癞蛤蟆一样懒惰
8.  as wise as an owl
- 像猫头鹰一样聪明
9.  as happy as a lark
- 像云雀一样快乐
10. as hungry as a wolf
- 像狼一样饿

Similes can be used to make your writing more entertaining and colourful. Try it!

Fill in the blanks in the sentences below. Choose the correct simile from the selection provided.
as angry as a wasp
as fast as a hare
as busy as a bees
as graceful as a swan
as proud as a peacock
as brave as a lion
as hungry as a wolf
as clean as a new pin
as frightened as a rabbit

1. Rima was __________ when she walked into the haunted house at the funfair.
2. Ravindran turned __________ when his brother dropped his new camera.
3. The fireman saved the boy from the burning house. The fireman was __________.
4.The pupils are __________ as they need to clean up their school compund before the Prime Minister of Malaysia arrives.
5. The school is __________ after a successful 'Cleanliness Campaign' week.
6. Nga Wen was __________ when she danced on stage.
7. I have not eaten since yesterday, so I am __________.
8. Usain Bolt is the fastest runner in the world. He is __________.
9. Olga is a pretty girl, but nobody likes her because she is __________.


 Adverbs of frequency

We use the words 'daily', 'weekly', 'fortnightly', 'monthly' and 'yearly' to explain how often something happens. They are called adverbs of frequency.

Adverb of frequency
Every day
Every week
Every two weeks
Every month
Every year

These adverbs of frequency describe definite frequency. Below are some examples of sentences using these adverbs of frequency.

1. Shakeena brushes her teeth daily.
2. Ahmad goes for swimming lessons weekly.
3. I watch movies at the cinema fortnightly.
4.Xun Hao folds more than one hundred paper cranes monthly.
5.Students from Osaki Elementary School visit the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park yearly.